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This is in addition to the score won or lost by the partner of the nil bidder for tricks made. If a bid of nil fails - that is, the bidder takes at least one trick - the bidder's side loses points, but still receives any amount scored for the partner's bid.
The usual rule is that when a nil fails, the tricks won by the nil bidder do not count towards making the partner's bid, but do count as bags for the team.
A bid of blind nil scores twice as much as an ordinary nil - it wins points if successful and loses points if it fails.
The side which reaches points first wins the game. If both sides reach points in the same deal, the side with the higher score wins. Dennis J Barmore, who used to run a mailing list for information about Spades, Bid Whist and Pinochle clubs and tournaments in the USA, contributed the following description of a variant which is widely played by African Americans.
The rules are as in basic spades above , but with the following differences:. Baxter contributed the following variation, which is popular in New York City.
Two jokers are included and the 2 and 2 are removed from the deck. The rank of trumps from high to low is: Note that for the purpose of following suit, the jokers and the two of diamonds count as spades.
Redd reports that many players keep the 2 as the lowest club and instead remove both red twos, and many count the black joker as the highest trump followed by the red Joker, so that the top trumps are big black joker, small red joker, 2, 2, A, K , The dealer shuffles, the player to dealer's right cuts, and 13 cards each are dealt.
Occasionally a "French Cut" is used, which works as follows. After the dealer has shuffled, the player to the right divides it into four face-down stacks and flips over the top card of each stack.
One of these cards is given to each player - the cutter decides who gets what card. Then the deck is reassembled by stacking the four smaller decks without the four top cards and without shuffling again.
These cards are dealt one at a time in the normal way, beginning to dealer's left and ending with the dealer, so that everyone has 13 cards, and each player has one card that is known to everyone.
Partnership bidding is used, beginning with the dealer's opponents. Partners may tell each other how many "tricks" or "books" sure tricks they think they can make and how many "possibles" extra tricks that may or may not be made they have.
Based on this, they agree on a bid for the partnership. When the non-dealing team has bid, the dealer's team agree their bid in a similar way.
All conversations are heard by all players, so the dealer's team may also be influenced by the nondealers' discussion.
The minimum bid for each team is 4 and the maximum is There are no Nil bids. A partnership which is losing by a margin of at least points may choose not to look at their cards, but bid "blind".
The minimum blind bid is 6 tricks. A blind bid scores double if successful but only singly if lost. After agreeing on a blind bid, the partners pick up their cards and look at them.
If they think they can win at least 10 tricks, they may "come out" of their blind bid and bid 10, but in this case they only win singly rather than for a bid of The player to dealer's left leads to the first trick.
Spades may not be led in the first three tricks unless they have been "broken" by a player trumping a lead of another suit with a spade.
From the fourth trick onwards any card can be led. For a normal non-blind bid from 4 to 9 to succeed, the team must win the number of tricks bid, and may win one or two overtricks sandbags , but not more than that.
For a successful bid they win 10 times the number bid, with nothing extra for overtricks. If the team wins fewer tricks than they bid, or wins three or more sandbags, they are set and in this case they lose 10 points per trick bid.
For a non-blind bid of 10, the team scores points if they take 10, 11 or 12 tricks. If they bid 10 and win all 13 tricks they win the whole game.
If they take fewer than 10 tricks they lose A team that takes all 13 tricks, known as a Boston , also gains "bragging rights".
That is the case even if they bid less than 10, in which case they are set and score minus their bid for taking too many overtricks.
For a blind bid, the team scores double the amount for the corresponding non-blind bid if they take at least as many tricks as they bid, and there is no limit on sandbags.
This a successful blind 10 wins , though a team that bids blind and then comes out for a non-blind bid of 10 scores only A blind bid fails if the team takes fewer trick than they bid, and in this case there is no double - they lose just 10 points per trick bid for a blind bid of 6 to 9, or for a failed blind The first hand of a new game is normally played without any bidding.
The teams just play to win as many tricks as possible and score 10 points per trick. If a team is set twice in succession "shot back to back" , they lose the whole game , irrespective of the scores.
If both teams are set on two consecutive deals, the team with the higher score wins. Redd reports that in some groups, a team survives two consecutive sets but loses the whole game if they are set three times in succession.
If the game is not ended by a Boston or a team losing twice in a row, the first team to score or more points, or the team with the higher score if both achieve this on the same deal, wins the game.
If there is a tie at or more points, further deals must be played until the tie is broken. Here are some further variants, mostly contributed by Theodore Hwa.
In some versions of Spades, some or all of the four twos are elevated to the top of the spade suit, are ranked in some specified order, and are considered to be spades.
The rest of the cards rank as in normal. Spades can also be played with a 54 card pack - the standard pack of 52 plus 2 distinguishable jokers.
In this case the two jokers are elevated to be the top two cards of the spade suit, with a particular order of the jokers specified.
If jokers are used and no cards are eliminated, then there will be two cards left over at the end of the deal, and these are given to the dealer.
Having looked at all 15 cards, the dealer discards any two cards face down. Some play that the two extra cards are given to the holder of the two of clubs, rather than the dealer.
Some play that the discard takes place after the bidding. Jeffrey Jacobs reports a variant "Widow Spades" which uses a pack with two jokers, but in this case the two cards remaining at the end of the deal are set aside unseen - no one may look at them until after the play.
This adds an element of uncertainty, since sometimes a high trump is unexpectedly out of play. Michael Mitchell reports a variation with 54 cards in which the two cards remaining after the deal are taken by the team that bids the greater number of tricks.
They may agree to take one card each, or for one player to take both cards. If the teams bid equal numbers of tricks - for example six each - then each team gets one of the remaining cards - they decide between themselves which member of each partnership should take it.
In either card, the player s who have taken the extra cards discard unwanted cards face down to bring their hands back to 13 cards before the play begins.
Some play that before the bidding, each player passes three cards face down to partner. The cards are passed simultaneously - players must decide what to pass before knowing what cards they will receive.
Some play that instead of the players bidding strictly in turn, each partnership agrees on a bid, through a process of discussion.
First the non-dealer's side agrees on a bid. Each partner on that side communicates the amount of tricks they expect to take, based on their cards.
A certain amount of unspecified bantering about "halves" and "maybes" is permitted, but not specific information about cards held. For example you are allowed to say "I know I can take 4 tricks, I might be able to take 6"; you are not allowed to say "I have a couple of high hearts and a singleton in clubs".
The agreed upon bid is then written down. The other side then agrees on a bid in the same manner. Some play that each team must bid a minimum of 4 tricks.
If a player bids Nil, that player's partner must bid at least 4. Some play that after each partnership has agreed its initial bid, each side, beginning with the side that made the first bid, is then given the opportunity to increase its bid.
Some play that the bids of the two sides must not add up to exactly 13 tricks. This makes it impossible for both teams to win their bid exactly.
The type of bidding described in the main account of Spades above is known as "round the table" bidding. In this type of bidding table talk is usually not permitted.
A player may only state a number. Some play that the dealer, rather than the player to dealer's left begins. There is also variation as to whether a bid of "zero" must necessarily be construed as bid of nil.
In round-the-table bidding, some people allow a second round of bidding, in which each side may increase its bid. In this second round, the bidding proceeds exactly as in partnership bidding, beginning with the same side as the player who began the round-the-clock bidding sequence.
Some play that in the first deal of a spades game there is no bidding. The cards are played in the usual way and each team scores 10 points for each trick taken.
This does not seem to be a very good rule - it reduces the scope for skill without any compensating advantage - but Jeffrey Jacobs reports that some people like to play this way.
There is great variety in the special bids or actions a player may be allowed to make during his turn to bid. Some of the possibilities are listed below.
Some play that the dealer leads first, rather than the player to dealer's left, and may lead any card except a spade.
On the first trick, some require that everyone must play their lowest club. A player who has no clubs must discard a diamond or a heart.
No spades may be played to the trick. In this variation, on this first trick it does not matter much in what order the four players play their cards - but if you want to be fussy then the holder of the 2 of clubs should lead, and the others play in clockwise order.
The trick is won by the highest club played. In the first trick, some allow a player who has no clubs to play a spade on the trick. In this case the trick is won by the highest spade if a spade is played.
As the order of play to the trick may now be important if you are going to play a spade you would rather wait to see if someone else plays a higher spade first , the holder of the two of clubs should lead to the first trick or the holder of the lowest club in play if you are playing with jokers and the two of clubs was discarded.
Tricks in excess of the contract overtricks or sandbags may be worth minus 1 point each rather than plus 1. In this case the penalty for accumulating 10 overtricks does not apply.
Some players use the units digit of the score to count sandbags, but do not regard it as being part of the score - so sandbags are in effect worth nothing until you have 10 of them, when they cost you In this variation if your score was and you bid 7 tricks and took 9 your score would become not Some people play that there is a special card which cancels one sandbag on that hand for the side that takes it in their tricks.
If the side which wins the special card makes no overtricks, or loses their bid, the special card has no effect.
The special card may be either a fixed card - for example the three of spades - or may be determined afresh by cutting a card before each deal.
Some play that if a team takes at least twice as many tricks as they bid they lose their bid for example if they bid 4 and win 8 or more tricks they score Some play that the penalty for taking fewer tricks than were bid is 10 points for each trick by which the team falls short of the bid, rather than 10 times the bid.
Some play that if a side's cumulative score is minus or worse, that side loses the game and of course the other side wins.
Some players set the target for winning the game at points rather than Others play with a target of only When a piece is captured the count starts again from scratch only if it is the last piece of one side in the game.
When the last piece that is not the king of the disadvantaged side is captured, the count may be started, or restarted from the aforementioned counting, by the weaker side, and the stronger side now has a maximum number of moves based on the pieces left:.
The weaker side pronounces aloud the counting of his fleeing moves, starting from the number of pieces left on the board, including both kings.
The stronger side has to checkmate his opponent's king before the maximum number is pronounced, otherwise the game is drawn.
During this process, the count may restart if the counting side would like to stop and start counting again. For example, if White has two rooks and a knight against a lone black king, he has three moves to checkmate his opponent the given value of 8 minus the total number of pieces, 5.
If Black captures a white rook, the count does not automatically restart, unless Black is willing to do so, at his own disadvantage.
However, many players do not understand this and restart the counting while fleeing the king. Here are some alternative rules, which do not apply to the standard, formal game, or have been abandoned in professional play.
They are called sutras. The first free moves are similar to those in Cambodian Ouk see below. The variety of chess played in Cambodia , called "Ok" Khmer: There is evidence that Ouk Chatrang has been played in Cambodia since the twelfth century, as it is depicted in several reliefs in the Angkor temples.
In the variant "Ka Ok" aka "Kar Ouk" , the first player to put the other in check wins. The first Ouk Chatrang tournament was held in Cambodia from April 3 to 4 of , upon the completion of a standardized ruleset by the Olympic Committee of Cambodia and the Cambodian Chess Association.
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A History of Chess Reissued ed.